The Three Major Data Collection in Research

The Three Major Data Collection in Research

There are two major tasks in creating research paper. One is to identify the researchable problem and deciding which problem is to explore. Often, deciding the problem to research is based on the knowledge, skills and specialization of the researcher. A researcher specializing in Measurement and Evaluation normally choose a problem about academic performance of selected population. A science teacher will normally choose to evaluate scientific theorem. The second major task in conducting research is selecting the methods of collecting data. There are many methods of collecting data and the selection of these methods is based again to the expertise of the researcher. A social studies teacher normally chooses observation method while the mathematics teacher prepared test methods.

There are three major approaches to gathering information about a situation persons, problem or phenomenon. Sometimes, information required is already available and need only be extracted. However, there are times when the information must be collected. Based upon these broad approaches to information gathering, data are categorized as secondary and primary data.

Information gathered using the first approach is said to collect from secondary sources like census result, hospital records, newspaper, article, and related research. On the other hand, getting the first-hand information regarding community attitudes is known as primary method.

To collect any data for interpretation you will need the following data collection methods;

1. Observation, in its simple’s term, is the process whereby the researcher watches the research situation with the help of ICT Technology. This is the most appropriately used in researches involving observations of teaching-learning conditions play behavior of the children and group interaction. Researcher should not begin this process without the help of observation guide.


2. Questioning method is the most effectively used in the survey approach. Just like other techniques, this method can be more reliable if the questions are structured beforehand and if the sample of questions prepared are representative enough of all the questions needed for the research problem. The Table of Specification is very much helpful before writing down specific questions. It is known to everyone that question writing is an art. It demands skills on your part. However, there are many books about principle of test construction in the store today.

3. Objective methods is the third type of data collection. Very often we hear students inquiring tests or not .In this case, the students are merely asking what type of items will be administered to them. These methods are supposed to have greater degree of objectivity in that scoring items doesn’t pose problems of consistency or homogeneity. These include the multiple-choice test and the scale type. Among the scale types are the rating scales, rank order scale-technique, semantic differential, force-choice technique and the paired comparison scales.

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